Lafayette becomes a major-general today.

History Today:
19-year-old Marquis de Lafayette was named a major-general in the American Continental Army on July 31, 1777.

In 1715, a storm off the east Florida coast sunk a fleet of Spanish ships carrying gold, silver, and jewellery, killing over 1,000 crew members.

In 1972, Democratic vice-presidential candidate Thomas Eagleton withdrew after psychiatric treatment revelations.
Seven-week MLB strike concluded in 1981.

In 2003, the Vatican started a worldwide campaign against homosexual weddings, telling Catholic lawmakers that support of same-sex partnerships was "gravely sinful"

A federal appeals court reversed Dzhokhar Tsarnaev's death sentence in the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing in 2020, stating the judge didn't screen jurors for prejudices.

John Kelly replaced Reince Priebus as White House chief of staff five years ago. Anthony Scaramucci was fired hours after being named White House communications director. 

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